Tag Archives: disambiguation

Leaving ambiguity unresolved

Disambiguation is an essential process in machine translation. Sometimes, however, it seems more rational and logical to leave an ambiguity in the translation. This is the case when (i) there is an ambiguous word in the sentence to be translated; and (ii) the context does not provide an objective reason to choose one of the […]

Grammatical word-disambiguation again and again

The main difficulty here seems to lie in the adaptation of the grammatical disambiguation module. Indeed, for the French language, such a module performs disambiguation with respect to about 100 categories. The number of pairs (or 3-tuples, 4-tuples, etc.) of disambiguation, for French, is about 250. The question is: when we change languages, how many […]

Grammatical word-disambiguation again

The challenge is especially that of generalizing the grammatical word-disambiguation to several languages. Creating a module of grammatical word-disambiguation for each language appears to be a long and arduous task. This seems to be the main difficulty. But if a module specific to a given language can be generalized to several other languages, this could […]

Further reflexions on the status of “I love you” in Corsican language

Let us briefly recall the problem: translating ‘I love you’ might sound trivial, but it’s not. In fact, ‘ti amu‘ is not the best translation. The best translation is ‘ti tengu caru‘ when addressed to a male person, or ‘ti tengu cara‘ when addressed to a female person. Hence the proposed preliminary translation ‘ti tengu […]

More on polymorphic disambiguation…

Let’s take another look at polymorphic disambiguation. We shall consider the French word sequence ‘nombre de’. The translation into Corsican (the same goes for English and other languages) cannot be identical, because ‘number of’ can be translated in two different ways. In the sequence ‘mais nombre de poissons sont longs’ (but many fish are long), […]

Word sense disambiguation: a hard case

Let us consider a hard case for word sense disambiguation, in the context of French to Corsican MT. But the same goes for French to English MT. It relates to French words such as: ‘accomplit’, ‘affaiblit’, ‘affranchit’, ‘alourdit’, ‘amortit’. The corresponding verbs ‘accomplir’ (to fulfill, to accomplish), ‘affaiblir’ (to weaken), ‘affranchir’ (to free), ‘alourdir’ (to […]

More on grammatical type disambiguation

Let us focus on grammatical type disambiguation, which is a subproblem of word disambiguation. General grammatical types are: verbs, nouns, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, gerundive, etc. But for grammatical type disambiguation purposes, more accuracy is in order: instances of grammatical types are then: masculine singular noun, feminine singular noun, masculine plural noun, feminine plural noun, masculine […]

Disambiguating ‘nombre de’

Let us consider here the disambiguation of ‘nombre de’ which can be according to the cases: a singular masculine noun followed by a preposition: in this case, ‘nombre de’ translates to numaru di (number of) an indefinite pronoun: in this case, French ‘nombre de’ translates to Corsican into bon parechji (many, a great many) Si […]

Proper nouns: handling some false positives

Now handling some kind of false positives related to proper nouns translation. As this type of error is somewhat widespread, it could result in a 0.2% increase in overall accuracy. Of interest in the present case: recall that ‘détroit’ is French name for strittonu (straight, i.e. the straight of Gibraltar) ‘Tours’ (the French city of) […]

Proper nouns: false positives again

Now we face false positives again: French proper noun ‘Détroit’ is translated erroneously into Strittonu when it shouls have been left untradslated, being a proper noun.  The ambiguity of ‘Détroit’ lies in the fact that it can be translated either into: Détroit, the city Strittonu, the Corsican word strittonu/strittone being the corresponding word for French noun ‘détroit’ […]

A Special Case of Anaphora Resolution

Anaphora resolution usually refers to pronouns. But we face here a special case of anaphora resolution that relates to an adjective. The following sentence: ‘un vase de Chine authentique’ (an authentic vase of China) is translated erroneously as un vasu di China autentica, due to erroneous anaphora resolution. In this sample, the adjective ‘authentique’ refers […]

Four consecutive ambiguous words

Translating the following sentence: ‘ce fait est unique’ is not as easy as it could seem at first glance. In effect, it is made up of four consecutive ambiguous words: ‘ce’: ‘ssu (demonstrative pronoun, this) or ciò (it, relative pronoun) ‘fait’: fattu (masculine singular noun, fact), fattu (past participe, done) or faci (does, third person […]

Solving fivefold ambiguity: translation for French ‘poste’

French word ‘poste’ has (at least) fivefold ambiguity. For it can designate: ‘poste’ (masculine singular noun) : postu, masculine singular noun (set, i.e. television set) ‘poste’ (masculine singular noun): posta, feminine singular noun (position): erroneously translated as postu in the present case ; it should read a so posta ‘poste’ (feminine singular noun) : posta, feminine singular noun […]

Chemistry: translating acid names

Translating this series of acid names is not as easy as it could seem at first glance. In effect, each acid name is composed of three consecutive ambiguous names: ‘l’ is ambiguous between the masculine (u, the) or feminine (a, the) definite article ‘acide’ is ambiguous betwwen acidu (acid, masculine singular noun), acitu (acid, masculine […]

Another case of firstname ambiguity: ‘Noël’

Translation of the French word ‘Noël’ yields another case of ambiguity. For ‘Noël’ can translate: either into Natali (Christmas, Christmas Day): the annual festival commemorating Jesus Christ’s birth or into, identically, Natali (‘Noel‘): the firstname Now it seems there is no case of disambiguation, since in either case, ‘Noël’ in French translates into Natali (Natali in sartinese and […]

Interesting case of first name disambiguation

Here is an interesting case of first name disambiguation for machine translation. Consider the following first name ‘Camille’. It can apply to both genders. In Corsican (taravese or sartinese variants) it translates either into Cameddu (masculine) or Camedda (feminine). In some cases, the corresponding disambiguation relies on mere grammatical grounds. For example, ‘Camille était beau’ […]

Word-sense disambiguation: first test of new engine

Now testing the new engine with the semantically ambiguous French ‘échecs’ = fiaschi/scacchi (failures/chess). What is interesting here is that semantic disambiguation transfers successfully into English (although the French/English engine is still in its infancy as there are still a lot of grammatical errors): Now further tests are needed with some other semantically ambiguous words: […]

Feigenbaum test and semantic disambiguation

Now it is patent that there cannot be successful  Feigenbaum test (i.e. not only occasional Feigenbaum hits, but regular and average performance) without an adequate treatment of semantic disambiguation. Arguably, it is one hard problem of machine translation. Here are some typical instances: ‘défense’: defense/tusk; Corsican: difesa/sanna ‘fils’: sons/wires; Corsican: figlioli/fili ‘comprendre’:understand/comprise; Corsican: capisce/cumprende ‘vol’: flight/theft; Corsican: bulu/arrubecciu ‘voler’: fly/steal; Corsican: bulà/arrubà ‘échecs’: chess/failures; Corsican: […]

French ‘fin’ followed by a year number: fixed

Tagger improvement: fixed this issue. French ‘l’Empire allemand’ now translates properly into l’Imperu alimanu (the German Empire). French word ‘fin’ is now identified as a preposition when followed by a year number. The above excerpt is translated into the ‘sartinesu’ variant of Corsican language. This issue relates to the more general problem of the grammatical […]