Author Archives: Paul

About the typology of machine translation systems

The distinction between rule-based and statistically-based translation may well be artificial and obscure what is really the interesting distinction in machine translation modules. The latter may well lie in the fact that some methods capture (at least partially) the semantics of a text, and are for example able to enumerate lemmas in the text, change […]


What are interjections (Hello! Good evening! Merry Christmas! Happy Birthday!…) in the present framework? They are words preceded by a punctuation mark (period, comma, exclamation mark, question mark, etc.) and followed by a punctuation mark.

Viewpoint of a pole

Let us define the concept of point of view related to a given pole of an A/Ā duality: we get then, for example (at the level of the extension/restriction duality) the standpoint by extension, as well as the viewpoint by restriction. Similarly, the qualitative viewpoint or perspective results from it, as well as the quantitative point […]

Principle of dialectical indifference

(PRINCIPLE OF DIALECTICAL INDIFFERENCE) When considering a given object o and the reference class E associated with it, from the angle of duality A/Ā, all things being equal, it should be given equal weight to the viewpoint of the A pole and the viewpoint of the Ā pole. The principle of dialectical indifference can be […]


Ambiguous imagesConflict resolutionConflict resolution with matrices of conceptsConflict types relating to matrices of conceptsContextualismDialectical contextualismDialectical monismDialectical monism in ancient Aztec philosophyDialectical monism in HeraclitusDichotomic analysisDichotomic analysis applied to paradox resolutionDualitiesDual polesInstance of one-sidedness fallacyMatrices of conceptsMaximisationMinimisationBistable cognitionBistable perceptionOmission of the neutralOne-sidedness biasPhilosophical paradox as conflictPolar contrariesPrinciple of dialectical indifferenceReference classReference class problemReference class problem in […]

Differential Cognitive Treatment of Polythematic Delusions and Generalised Anxiety Disorder

English translation of a paper published in french under the title “Traitement cognitif différentiel des délires polythématiques et du trouble anxieux généralisé“, in the Journal de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive, 2011, vol. 21-4, pp. 121-125. Schizophrenia is often associated with other physical and mental problems. Generalized anxiety disorder is notably one of the comorbid disorders […]

Polythematic Delusions and Logico-Theoretical vs. Experimentalist Turn of Mind

A paper published in the Journal for Neurocognitive Research,  Vol.  2013, 55, No. 1-2. This article aims to contribute to cognitive therapy of polythematic delusions by proposing a preliminary step to the implementation of traditional cognitive therapy, based on the construction of alternative hypotheses to delusions and testing of the latter. This additional step resides in the construction […]

On the Plausibility of Psychotic Hallucinations

A paper published in the Journal for Neurocognitive Research,  Vol. 53, No 1-2 (2011). In this paper, we describe several factors that can contribute, from the patient’s viewpoint, to the plausibility of psychotic hallucinations. We sketch then a Plausibility of Hallucinations Scale, consisting of a 50-item questionnaire, which aims at evaluating the degree of plausibility of […]

A Two-Sided Ontological Solution to the Sleeping Beauty Problem

Preprint published on the PhilSci archive. I describe in this paper an ontological solution to the Sleeping Beauty problem. I begin with describing the hyper-entanglement urn experiment. I restate first the Sleeping Beauty problem from a wider perspective than the usual opposition between halfers and thirders. I also argue that the Sleeping Beauty experiment is […]

Elements of Dialectical Contextualism

Posprint in English (with additional illustrations) of  an article appeared in French in the collective book (pages 581-608) written on the occasion of the 60th birthday of Pascal Engel. Abstract In what follows, I strive to present the elements of a philosophical doctrine, which can be defined as dialectical contextualism. I proceed first to define the elements […]

A Logical Defence of Maher’s Model of Polythematic Delusions

English translation of a paper published in French in Philosophiques, autumn 2008, under the title “Une défense logique du modèle de Maher pour les délires polythématiques”. In this paper, we proceed to describe a model for the formation and maintenance of polythematic delusions encountered in schizophrenia, which is in adequation with Brendan Maher’s account of […]

On a Class of Concepts

Posprint in English (with additional illustrations) of a paper published in French in Semiotica, vol. 139 (1-4), 2002, 211-226, under the title “Une Classe de Concepts”. This article describes the construction, of philosophical essence, of the class of the matrices of concepts, whose structure and properties present an interest in several fields. The paper emphasises the applications in the […]

A Brief Introduction to N-universes

Preprint.  I present in this paper the basic elements of the n-universes, from an essentially pragmatic standpoint, i.e. by describing accurately the step-by-step process which leads to the modelling of a thought experiment. A Brief Introduction to N-universes Paul Franceschi The n-universes are a methodological tool whose scope proves to be general and which find […]

A Third Route to the Doomsday Argument

A paper published (2009) in English in the Journal of Philosophical Research, vol. 34, pages 263-278 (with significant changes with regard to the preprint). In this paper, I present a solution to the Doomsday argument based on a third type of solution, by contrast with, on the one hand, the Carter-Leslie view and on the other hand, the […]

A Solution to Goodman’s Paradox

English Posprint (with additional illustrations) of a paper published in French in Dialogue Vol. 40, Winter 2001, pp. 99-123 under the title “Une Solution pour le Paradoxe de Goodman”.In the classical version of Goodman’s paradox, the universe where the problem takes place is ambiguous. The conditions of induction being accurately described, I define then a framework of n-universes, allowing the […]

A Dichotomic Analysis of the Surprise Examination Paradox

English translation of a paper appeared in French in Philosophiques 2005, vol. 32, pages 399-421 (with minor changes with regard to the published version). This paper proposes a new framework to solve the surprise examination paradox. I survey preliminary the main contributions to the literature related to the paradox. I introduce then a distinction between a monist and […]

Theory of Cognitive Distortions: Over-generalisation and Labeling

English translation of a paper published in French in the Journal de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive, 2009, 19-4, pages 136-140 under the title “Théorie des distorsions cognitives : la sur-généralisation et l’étiquetage”. In a previous article (Complements to a theory of cognitive distorsions, Journal de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive, 2007), we introduced some elements aimed at contributing to […]

Theory of Cognitive Distortions: Personalisation

English translation of a paper published in French in the Journal de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive, 2010, 20-2, pages 51-55 under the title “Théorie des distorsions cognitives : la personnalisation”. In a previous paper (Complements to a theory of cognitive distorsions, Journal de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive, 2007), we did present some elements aimed at contributing to a general […]

Theory of Cognitive Distortions: Application to Generalised Anxiety Disorder

English translation and postprint (with additional illustrations) of a paper published in French under the title “Théorie des distorsions cognitives : application à l’anxiété généralisée” in the Journal de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive, 2008, 18, pp. 127-131.This article follows the contribution to the general theory of cognitive distortions exposed in “Complements to a theory of cognitive distorsions” (Journal de […]

Probabilistic Situations for Goodmanian N-universes

A paper appeared (2006) in French in the Journal of Philosophical Research, vol. 31, pages 123-141, under the title “Situations probabilistes pour n-univers goodmaniens.” I proceed to describe several applications of the theory of n-universes through several different probabilistic situations. I describe first how n-universes can be used as an extension of the probability spaces used in probability theory. […]